Active Brownian Filaments with Hydrodynamic Interactions: Conformations and Dynamics
The conformational and dynamical properties of active self-propelled filaments/polymers are in- vestigated in the presence of hydrodynamic interactions by both, Brownian dynamics simulations and analytical theory. Numerically, a discrete linear chain composed of active Brownian particles is considered, analytically, a continuous linear semiflexible polymer with active velocities chang- ing diffusively. The force-free nature of active monomers is accounted for—no Stokeslet fluid flow induced by active forces—and higher order hydrodynamic multipole moments are neglected. Hence, fluid-mediated interactions are assumed to arise solely due to intramolecular forces. The hydrodynamic interactions (HI) are taken into account analytically by the preaveraged Oseen ten- sor, and numerically by the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa tensor. The nonequilibrium character of the active process implies a dependence of the stationary-state properties on HI via the polymer re- laxation times. In particular, at moderate activities, HI lead to a substantial shrinkage of flexible and semiflexible polymers to an extent far beyond shrinkage of comparable free-draining poly- mers; even flexible HI-polymers shrink, while active free-draining polymers swell monotonically. Large activities imply a reswelling, however, to a less extent than for non-HI polymers, caused by the shorter polymer relaxation times due to hydrodynamic interactions. The polymer mean square displacement is enhanced, and an activity-determined ballistic regime appears. Over a wide range of time scales, flexible active polymers exhibit a hydrodynamically governed subdif- fusive regime, with an exponent significantly smaller than that of the Rouse and Zimm models of passive polymers. Compared to simulations, the approximate analytical approach predicts a weaker hydrodynamic effect. Overall, hydrodynamic interactions modify the conformational and dynamical properties of active polymers substantially.